Victim Justice & Victimology Issues

Further Reading for Facilitators

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Acker, James, and Karp, David. Wounds that Do Not Bind: Victim-Based Perspectives on the Death Penalty, Carolina Academic Press, 2006.

This volume presents perspectives of murder victims family members, academics, and crime victims advocates regarding the significance of capital punishment to murder victims’ survivors. The book includes more than twenty chapters that examine a variety of issues concerning these survivors, or co-victims, and the death penalty.  Includes: Part I: Personal accounts: the experiences of co-victims of murder, other crime victims, and victim advocates. Part. II: Legal perspectives. Causing death and sustaining life: the law, capital punishment, and criminal homicide victims.  Part III: Research perspectives. The death penalty and the families of victims: an overview of research.  Part IV: Policy implications: capital punishment, criminal justice practices, and victim services.

 

Crawford, A., and Goodey, J. (Editors). Integrating a Victim Perspective into the Criminal Justice System: International Debates, Ashgate, U.K., 2000.

The implications of introducing a victim’s perspective into the delicate balance between state and offender is likely to be a key issue in the future of criminal justice. This volume outlines the contours of the relevant debates, drawing together contributions from several different fields, including criminology, law, philosophy, social policy, politics and sociology.   Includes the following essays:

  • The status of victims: Victims as consumers of the criminal justice system?
  • Individualization of the victim: from positivism to postmodernism
  • Taking the law into their own hands: victims as offenders
  • Implications of the international crime victims survey for a victim perspective
  • Victims within criminal justice: The new status of victims in the UK: opportunities and threats
  • Victims and criminal justice: creating responsible criminal justice agencies
  • Integrating a victim perspective in criminal justice through victim impact statements
  • Victims’ rights, defendants’ rights and criminal procedure
  • Victims and restorative justice: The practice of family group conferences in New Zealand: assessing the place, potential and pitfalls of restorative justice
  • Integrating a multi-victim perspective into criminal justice through restorative justice conferences
  • Extending the victim perspective towards a systemic restorative justice alternative
  • Salient themes towards a victim perspective and the limitations of restorative justice: some concluding comments

 

Fattah, Ezzat (Editor). Towards a Critical Victimology, Macmillan, 1992.

Towards a Critical Victimology offers a serious challenge to the law and order perspective on victims’ rights and the false contest that is usually created between those rights and the rights of offenders. It sheds light on the way victim initiatives emerged, the timing of those initiatives, their seemingly ulterior motives, and the political interests they are meant to serve.

 

Fattah, Ezzat, and Parmentier, Stefaan (Editors). Victim Policies and Criminal Justice on the Road to Restorative Justice: Essays in Honour of Tony Peters, Leuven. 2001.

This edited volume contains 22 papers organized into three sections under the following headings:  Part I — On Promoting Victim Policies;  Part II  — On Reforming Criminal Justice; and Part III — On Restorative Justice.  All three areas are ones to which Tony Peters, former Professor of Criminology in Leuven, has made a significant contribution and for which he is known as an international authority. During his long and productive academic career Tony Peters led many struggles for criminal justice reform. He was a leading figure in the movement to recognize crime victims’ plight and to reaffirm their rights. In Belgium, he spearheaded the early initiatives in restorative justice and became one of its outspoken proponents nationally and internationally.   These three major topics and the various developments and reforms that are addressed in the papers are aimed to add to the thinking about, and the practice of, criminal justice in the years to come. Thus, in addition to paying homage to a congenial friend and an illustrious colleague, it is hoped that this book will appeal and prove useful to all those who have an interest in victims issues, in criminal justice reform, and last but not least, in the promising paradigm of restorative justice.

 

Fattah, Ezzat, and Peters, Tony (Editors). Support for Crime Victims in a Comparative Perspective: Essays dedicated to Professor Frederick McClintock, Leuven University, 1998.

 In part one, acknowledged experts from Finland, Holland, Switzerland, Spain and the U.K. report on the developments in victimology and discuss the discipline’s impact on criminal justice policy.  Part two takes a broader perspective explaining how restorative justice initiatives could provide a viable and less costly alternative to the current retributive criminal justice system. In this part, three essays contrast the retributive and restorative justice paradigms while the remaining six essays are devoted to the theory and the different practices of restorative justice. Particular attention is given to the role crime victims can play in a new model of criminal justice and to their traditional role in aboriginal and tribal communities. Also emphasis is placed on the practice of mediation, the techniques of dispute settlement and conflict resolution aimed at restitution and harm reparation and their recent developments in different countries.

 

Fattah, Ezzat, Understanding Criminal Victimization, Prentice-Hall Canada, 1991.

The discussion emphasizes the theme of integrating criminological and victimological explanations and focuses on why some individuals, households, or businesses become victims while others do not; why some are more often victimized than others; and why some are repeatedly victimized. Individual sections examine conceptual and measurement issues and problems, especially the use of victimization surveys as well as the extent, trends, and patterns of criminal victimization. Additional sections focus on the reciprocal attitudes of victims and victimizers, their sociodemographic characteristics, victim-offender relationships, and their interactions. The final section reviews micro and macro explanations of criminal victimization, moving from a discussion of how offenders select their victims to the role that victim characteristics and behavior play in victimization. The text concludes with a critical review of the models proposed in the last 15 years to explain the different risks of victimization. Index and chapter reference lists.  The text is intended for use in graduate or upper-level undergraduate courses.

 

Galaway, Burton, and Hudson, Joe (Editors). Offender Restitution in Theory and Action, Lexington, Canada, 1977.

Contains sixteen papers associated with a Symposium on Restitution held in Minnesota in November of 1977 on the topic of offender restitution, a program model some consider to be the beginning of a more victim centered justice, victim services, and the seed of accountability which helped victim-centered RJ come to fruition. The papers focus on restitution as an idea and practice, the deterrence value and therapeutic uses of restitution, and equity theory and restitution.  One article entitled, Victims, Offenders, and the Criminal Justice System points to the consideration of victims as a key to justice. Attitudes on restitution are explored in one article, while the four remaining articles cover particular restitution programs, including one on a Victims’ Assistance Program, a victim-centered restitution program serving the residents of Rapid City, S. Dakota.  The final segment was gathered by the editors to reflect the proceedings of the symposium, and includes a discussion on victims in the justice process.

 

Galaway, Burt, and Hudson, Joe (Editors). Perspectives on Crime Victims, C.V. Mosby, 1981.

An early volume on crime victims that gives insight into the development into the victim rights movement, and the move to a more victim aware criminal justice system.  During the 1970’s the field of victimology expanded rapidly.  A substantial number of publications–both books and articles–appeared, and a variety of exciting victim service programs were established in many areas of the U.S.  The published work had tended to be specialized and fragmented, and appeared in a wide range of journals.  A single source from which a reader might receive an overview of the issues and questions challenging the emerging field of victimology had not been available.  This book was developed as an attempt to provide that source.  Articles were selected from journals and books representing many different disciplines and were organized to provide an overview of the field of victimology.  Where published works were not available, original papers were developed.  The editors were professors the School of Social Development at the University of Minnesota, but the book represents the ideas of a great number of people.  It is organized into sections including: Victimology as an Evolving Discipline (overview of the field, victim in the justice system, costs of crime, victim surveys), Victim-offender Systems (victim vulnerability, victim culpability, victims of family violence), Implications for the Justice System (toward victim orientation, victim involvement, victim-system interaction), and Services for Crime Victims (creating safe environments, victim service program models, alternative victim services, and victim compensation).

 

Kaiser, G., Kury, H., and Albrecht, H. & J. (Editors). Victims and Criminal Justice: Victimological Research: Stocktaking and Prospects, Freiburg im Bresau, 1991.

A paper on victim-related research at the Max Planck Institute is followed by a review of research on victimization and related topics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Other chapters address victimology research in Switzerland, Austria, Spain, Greece, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Israel, Africa, and Japan. A section on victim surveys contains 18 papers. A number of the papers focus on victimization surveys in the following countries: Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, and Japan. Other papers focus on particular topics of relevance to victim surveys. these topics include victim behavior and the risk of victimization, victim characteristics, fear of crime, attitudes toward the police and the mass media, fear of crime in Germany, and public attitudes toward crime as manifested in the Zurich Victim Survey (Switzerland). The volume concludes with the presentation of the results of victim survey research in a small Greek town, with reference to the attitudes toward crime and the criminal justice system. Chapter references, tables, and figures.

 

Shapland, J., Wilmore, J., Duff, P. Victims in the Criminal Justice System, Gower, 1985.

This study of 276 violent crime victims’ experiences in the British criminal justice system focuses on the operations of the police, the courts, victim support groups, and victim compensation schemes. Study subjects were persons victimized by violent crimes reported to the police from January 1979 in Coventry and April 1979 in Northampton through July 1980. Subjects were interviewed as soon as possible after the report to the police, after committal proceedings (if the case was committed from the magistrates’ court to the crown court), after the case outcome, and after the result of any application or award of compensation. Victims’ feelings and needs were ignored by many of the professionals, and victims had no clearly defined role to play in case processing. Compensation schemes often failed to meet victim needs. Overall, system assumptions about victim needs< did not match victims’ expectations of the system. The proposal for victim-oriented case processing advocates the development of a clearly defined plan for victim participation. Recommendations for improvement cover the provision of information for victims, investigation and prosecution, victim compensation, and victim support services. 87 references and subject index.

 

Walklate, Sandra. Victimology: The Victim and the Criminal Justice Process, Unwin Hyman, U.K., 1994.

A comprehensive introduction to the study of the victims of crime and the way in which they are treated in society generally, and in the criminal justice process in particular. The study of victims of crime is important to academics, the wider community of policy initiation and implementation, and to the political arena. Sandra Walklate examines the nature of this interest, and the contributions of victim-related research and criminal victimization surveys, in order to be able to provide the reader with a critical assessment of the issues involved. Contents: Preface and acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. Key concepts in victimology: an overview  2. Documenting victimization  3. The victimization of children  4. Corporate victimization  5. Victims and the criminal justice process  6. Voluntary organizations and victim support  7. Victims, crime prevention and the community; Conclusion; References; Index.

 

Wemmers, J.M. Victims in the Criminal Justice System, Kugler, 1996.

In the  fifteen to twenty years prior to 1996, criminal justice policy-makers and government in the Netherlands have begun to realize that victims of crime are often seriously affected by their experience and that reactions by criminal justice authorities are not always supportive.  The central question at the basis of this report is: How does the treatment of victims by the police and the public prosecution affect their attitudes towards criminal justice authorities and their law-abiding behaviour?   Full text available at:
https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/ov-1996-05-full-tekst_tcm28-78069.pdf

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