Cultural Competency & Diversity Issues

Further Reading for Victim/Survivors & Facilitators

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[Aboriginal Justice in Canada] Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities, Solicitor General of Canada, 1994.

This government report attempts to develop a common understanding of “healing” among aboriginal community members and non-aboriginal government representatives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 121 aboriginal community members from five communities in an attempt to understand the current use of the term and its current practice: with victims of crime and offenders, as a process of community development. She also discusses how government processes and programs could be more responsive to “community healing.”


Bachman, Ronet. Death and Violence on the Reservation: Homicide, Family Violence, and Suicide in American Indian Populations, Auburn House, 1992.

This volume was the first major attempt to systematically examine the etiology of violence in American Indian communities. Using fieldwork as well as quantitative and qualitative research, Bachman first presents an overview of American Indians from historical and contemporary perspectives, before she focuses specifically on violence and its causes. Homicide, suicide, and family violence are analyzed in depth, and the destructive impacts of alcohol and other addictive substances are documented.  Dr. Bachman effectively uses personal stories and narratives given by American Indians to illustrate the living reality behind the statistics she presents. She concludes with a variety of policy recommendations that will be of interest not only to policymakers, but also to academic researchers and students in criminology, ethnic relations, sociology, and anthropology.


Carillo, R., and Tello, J. (Editors). Family Violence and Men of Color: Healing the Wounded Male Spirit, [Second Edition] Springer, 2008.

Family violence is an international epidemic that knows no cultural boundaries, but for years research has overlooked the historical, political, and cultural factors that often lead men toward violent behavior. The first edition of Family Violence and Men of Color broke new ground by closely examining the relationship between race and family violence. This revised edition offers an even broader, cross-cultural analysis of male violence and more specialized treatment methods and approaches.


Dorais, Michel.  Don’t Tell: The Sexual Abuse of Boys, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.

Nearly one male in six has been the victim of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence – and yet this abuse remains a taboo subject, even among victims. In Don’t Tell, Michel Dorais gives the victims a voice, providing a sensitive analysis of their traumas and self-questioning, and offering strategies for coping. Don’t Tell examines the effects of sexual abuse on the emotional and sexual life of men, including their sense of self and their personal relationships. Using the first-hand accounts of victims Dorais shows that certain reactions are specific to male victims of abuse as they attempt to preserve a sense of physical integrity and masculinity. He also provides innovative strategies for both prevention and treatment that will be of use to those who have suffered abuse as well as to their families and all those who are trying to help them – spouses, friends, social workers, and therapists.


Flora, Rudy. How to Work with Sex Offenders: A Handbook for Criminal Justice, Human Service, and Mental Health Professionals, Haworth, 2001.

How to Work with Sex Offenders is the first complete manual available on the subject for professionals who deal with this very difficult population. This user-friendly, comprehensive resource presents new data that will give you techniques for effectively interviewing sex offenders and outlines innovative treatment options in an understandable way, but that is just part of what makes this book unique. This book walks you through the criminal justice, human services, and mental health systems as applied to sex offenders.


Girshik, Lori B. Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? Northeastern University, 2002.

Based on a nation-wide survey and in-depth interviews, this book exposes the shocking, hidden reality of woman-to-woman sexual violence and gives voice to the abused. The author discusses how the lesbian community has silenced survivors of violence and considers what role homophobia has played.


Gobodo-Madzikila, Pumla. A Human Being Died That Night: A South African Story of Forgiveness, Houghton Mifflin, 2003.

A clinical psychologist, professor, and member of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) describes how she met in a maximum security prison with Eugene de Kock, the notorious commander of apartheid death squads.  She explores how “good church going people” can do the most horrible acts, and what forgiveness means in this circumstance.  She was one of 19 on South Africa’s TRC, and her interviews with  de Kock left her so unsettled, she felt compelled to write this book.  In addition, Gobodo-Madzikla weaves in stories of victims and other criminals on both sides of the racial barrier, who she met while serving on the commission.


Hampton, R.L. Violence in the Black Family, Lexington, 1987.

This encyclopedic volume begins provocatively by detailing several “unkept promises” of family violence writings.  Among the unkept promises of greatest interest to the authors is that “research will answer the difficult questions and lead to the development of efficient and effective treatments.  It includes, an index, bibliography, and the following articles:

    • Violence against black children : current knowledge and future research needs /​ Robert L. Hampton
    • The significance of ethnic and cultural differences in child maltreatment /​ James Garbarino and Aaron Ebata
    • Child rearing in black families : child-abusing discipline /​ Ruby F. Lassiter
    • Child abuse and accidents in black families : a controlled comparative study /​ Jessica H. Daniel, Robert L. Hampton, and Eli H. Newberger
    • Child sexual abuse : a black perspective /​ Robert L. Pierce and Lois H. Pierce
    • African-American women in violent relationships : an exploration of cultural differences /​ Jo-Ellen Asbury
    • See how they run : battered women in shelters in the Old Dominion /​ Maurice C. Taylor and Pamela V. Hammond.
    • Raising the awareness of wife battering in rural black areas of central Virginia : a community outreach approach /​ Melvin N. Wilson, Debra D. Cobb and Regina T. Dolan
    • Family violence and homicide in the black community : are they linked? /​ Robert L. Hampton
    • Black women who kill /​ Coramae Richey Mann
    • Devalued lives and racial stereotypes : ideological barriers to the prevention of family violence among blacks /​ Darnell F. Hawkins
    • Research issues relating to the causes of social deviance and violence among black populations /​ Coramae Richey Mann and Velma LaPoint
    • Stress resolution among middle-aged black Americans /​ Lena Wright Myers
    • A developmental perspective on black family violence /​ Johnella Banks.


Hazelhurst, K. (Editor). Perceptions of Justice: Issues in Indigenous and Community Empowerment, Aldershot, U.K., 1995.

An analysis of how justice works for indigenous peoples in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It looks at issues of race, gender, social health and cross-cultural criminality. Attempts to “strike a balance” in British Columbia, and a local police “good community” initiative are included.


Lew, Mike. Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse, Harper & Row, 1990.

Psychotherapist Mike Lew has worked with thousands of men and women in their healing from the effects of childhood sexual abuse, rape, physical violence, emotional abuse, and neglect. The development of strategies for recovery from incest and other abuse, particularly for men, has been a major focus of his work as a counselor and group leader. This book examines the changing cultural attitudes toward male survivors of incest and other sexual trauma. This book offers advice, supported by personal anecdotes and statements of male survivors. It helps survivors to: identify and validate their childhood experiences; explore strategies of survival and healing; work through issues such as trust, intimacy, and sexual confusion; establish a support network for continued personal recovery; make choices that aren’t determined by abuse. Finally, it educates survivors and professionals about the recovery process – speaking to the pain, needs, fears, and hopes of the adult male survivor


Lewis, Alvin D. (Editor). Cultural Diversity in Sexual Abuser Treatment: Issues and Approaches, Safer Society, 1999.

Abusers of different cultures may not be assessed accurately because they do not make eye contact or express negative emotions in groups or to therapists. Their cultural support systems have rarely been included in treatment sessions or aftercare plans. Lack of attention to cultural issues may foster ineffective treatment, putting some abusers and their communities at risk. Contributors discuss cultural issues regarding assessment and treatment of female sex abusers (as an unrecognized culture), Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Alaska Native groups, Asian Americans, and model approach undertaken with Maoris in New Zealand.


McGillivray, A., and Comaskey, B. Black Eyes All the Time: Intimate Violence, Aboriginal Women, and the Justice System, University of Toronto, 1999.

Arising out of a 1995 Winnipeg study involving twenty-six Aboriginal women, this book is a compelling account of the domestic violence they experienced, first as children and later as wives and mothers.


Mints, Paula. Legacy of Courage: A Brave Woman’s Search for Her Mother’s Killer and Her Own Identity [her mother was homeless when murdered], New Horizon, 2000.

When a young woman finds out that a brutally murdered homeless woman was her mother, long-suppressed memories resurface and she slowly comes to term with the dysfunctional childhood caused by her schizophrenic mother. Mints discovers an apathetic justice system and becomes adamant in proving that the victim was not some anonymous person but a worthwhile individual.  Survivor Story.


Myers, S. and Filner, B. Mediation Across Cultures: A Handbook About Conflict and Culture, Intercultural Development, Inc., 1993.  cannot find description


Pierce-Baker, Charlotte (Editor). Surviving the Silence: Black Women’s Stories of Rape, W.W. Norton & Co., 1998.

Charlotte Pierce-Baker weaves together the accounts of black women who have been raped and who have felt that they had to remain silent in order to protect themselves and their race.  It outlines aspects of the personal narrative of a rape survivor story, then gives accounts of eleven black women “Silent Survivors” and concludes with men’s stories about the women they love who have been raped.


Renzetti, Claire M., and Miley, Charles H. Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships, Haworth, 1996.

Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships provides a comprehensive analysis of same-sex domestic violence, addressing the major theoretical and treatment issues for both its victims and perpetrators. Its contents raise awareness among social service providers, of the problem of same-sex domestic violence and emphasize the need for special services for both victims and perpetrators. The publication of Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships signifies the growing official recognition of domestic violence within lesbian and gay relationships as a social problem worthy of serious.


Ritchie, Beth. Compelled to Crime: The Gender Entrapment of Battered Black Women, Routledge, 1996.

Tells the stories of battered African American women incarcerated in a New York City correctional facility and explores what happens when the criminal justice system is introduced as a repressive force in their lives. Details the ways in which African American women are hemmed into the corners of U.S. society by virtue of their vulnerability to men’s violence, and penalized for behaviors that are proscribed by societal mores of appropriate gender roles.


Ross, Rupert. Returning to the Teachings: Exploring Aboriginal Justice, Penguin, Canada, 1996.

During a three-year secondment with Justice Canada, Ross travelled from the Yukon to Cape Breton Island, examining—and experiencing—the widespread Aboriginal preference for “peacemaker justice.” In this remarkable book, he invites us to accompany him as he moves past the pain and suffering that grip so many communities and into the exceptional promise of individual, family and community healing that traditional teachings are now restoring to Aboriginal Canada. He shares his confusion, frustrations and delights as Elders and other teachers guide him, in their unique and often puzzling ways, into ancient visions of Creation and our role with it. Returning to the Teachings is about Aboriginal justice and much more, speaking not only to our minds, but also to our hearts and spirits. Above all, it stands as a search for the values and visions that give life its significance and that any justice system, Aboriginal or otherwise, must serve and respect.


Stone, Robin D. No Secrets No Lies: How Black Families Can Heal from Sexual Abuse, Broadway, 2004.

No Secrets, No Lies is a powerful and daringly honest resource guide for families seeking to understand, prevent, and overcome childhood sexual abuse and its devastating impact on adult survivors. An estimated one in four women and one in six men is abused by age eighteen, most often by someone they know. Most of these sexual assaults are never disclosed, much less reported to the police. No Secrets, No Lies demystifies the cultural taboos and social dynamics that keep Black families silent and enable abuse to continue for generations. Among them: Fear of betraying family by turning offenders in to “the system;” Distrust of institutions and authority figures, such as police officers; Reluctance to seek counseling or therapy; A legacy of enslavement and stereotypes about black sexuality. Through compelling personal accounts from everyday people, Robin D. Stone, a sexual abuse survivor herself, illuminates the emotional, psychological and hidden consequences of remaining silent, and provides holistic, practical steps to move toward healing. No Secrets, No Lies candidly speaks to: survivors, telling them they are not at fault, not alone and how they can seek help; parents, guardians and caretakers, explaining how they can keep children safe and help survivors recover; and family, friends and other loved ones, showing ways to lend support.


Thomas, T. Men Surviving Incest: A Male Survivor Shares the Process of Recovery, Launch Press, 1989.

In this book, Thomas discusses the fear of and conflict of disclosure, and the stigmatization commonly felt by male survivors. He includes issues that are specific to male survivors, helping men who suffered from incest understand that they are not alone, and provide hope for a recovery.  He does this based on a 12 step model of recovery.


Van Dam, Carla. The Socially Skilled Child Molester: Differentiating the Guilty from the Falsely Accused, Haworth, 2006.

Know what signs indicate a child molester! Revealing the secret but successful strategies used by child molesters allows adults to intervene long before children are abused. This book identifies how socially proficient molesters successfully ingratiate themselves into families and communities. It closely examines their techniques and strategies while detailing the tools for prevention. The difficult issue of false accusation is tackled by learning the distinctions that clearly differentiate the guilty from the falsely accused.


Vronsky, Peter. Female Serial Killers: How and Why Women Become Monsters, Berkley, 2007.

Society is conditioned to think of murderers and predators as men, but in this book, Peter Vronsky exposes and investigates the phenomenon of women who kill—and the political, economic, social, and sexual implications. From history’s earliest recorded cases of homicidal females to Irma Grese, the Nazi Beast of Belsen, from Britain’s notorious child-slayer Myra Hindley, to cult killers, homicidal missionaries, and the sexy femme fatale, Vronsky challenges the ordinary standards of good and evil and defies the accepted perceptions of gender role and identity.


White, Evelyn C. Chain Chain Change: For Black Women in Abusive Relationships, Seal, 1994.

Offering practical information for African American women in physically or emotionally abusive relationships, the author discusses how to identify abuse, the cycle of violence, agencies and shelters, and using the legal system.


Yamamoto, E.K. Interracial Justice: Conflict and Reconciliation in Post-Civil Rights America, New York University, 1999.

The United States in the twenty-first century will be a nation of so-called minorities. Shifts in the composition of the American populace necessitate a radical change in the ways we as a nation think about race relations, identity, and racial justice. Once dominated by black-white relations, discussions of race are increasingly informed by an awareness of strife among nonwhite racial groups. While white influence remains important in nonwhite racial conflict, the time has come for acknowledgment of ways communities of color sometimes clash, and their struggles to heal the resulting wounds.


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