Crime, Justice, and Law Enforcement Issues

Further Reading for Victim/Survivors & Facilitators

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Acker, James, and Karp, David. Wounds that Do Not Bind: Victim-Based Perspectives on the Death Penalty, Carolina Academic Press, 2006.

This volume presents perspectives of murder victims family members, academics, and crime victims advocates regarding the significance of capital punishment to murder victims’ survivors. The book includes more than twenty chapters that examine a variety of issues concerning these survivors, or co-victims, and the death penalty.  Includes:

    • Part I: Personal accounts: the experiences of co-victims of murder, other crime victims, and victim advocates.
    • Part. II: Legal perspectives. Causing death and sustaining life: the law, capital punishment, and criminal homicide victims.
    • Part III: Research perspectives. The death penalty and the families of victims: an overview of research.
      Part IV: Policy implications: capital punishment, criminal justice practices, and victim services.


Andrews, D. A., and Bonta, James. The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Routledge, 2016.

The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, provides a psychological and evidence-informed perspective of criminal behavior that sets it apart from many criminological and mental health explanations of criminal behavior. Drawing upon the General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning theory, James Bonta and Donald Andrews provide an overview of the theoretical context and major knowledge base of the psychology of criminal conduct, discuss the eight major risk/need factors of criminal conduct, examine the prediction and classification of criminal behavior along with prevention and rehabilitation, and summarize the major issues in understanding criminal conduct. This book also offers the Risk/Need/Responsivity (RNR) model of offender assessment and treatment that has guided developments in the subject throughout the world.


Bachman, Ronet. Death and Violence on the Reservation: Homicide, Family Violence, and Suicide in American Indian Populations, Auburn House, 1992.

This volume is the first major attempt to systematically examine the etiology of violence in American Indian communities. Using fieldwork as well as quantitative and qualitative research, Bachman first presents an overview of American Indians from historical and contemporary perspectives, before she focuses specifically on violence and its causes. Homicide, suicide, and family violence are analyzed in depth, and the destructive impacts of alcohol and other addictive substances are documented.  Dr. Bachman effectively uses personal stories and narratives given by American Indians to illustrate the living reality behind the statistics she presents. She concludes with a variety of policy recommendations that will be of interest not only to policymakers, but also to academic researchers and students in criminology, ethnic relations, sociology, and anthropology.


Baumeister, Roy F. Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty, W.H. Freeman, 1997.

Why is there evil, and what can scientific research tell us about the origins and persistence of evil behavior’ Considering evil from the unusual perspective of the perpetrator, Baumeister asks, How do ordinary people find themselves beating their wives’ Murdering rival gang members’ Torturing political prisoners’ Betraying their colleagues to the secret police’ Why do cycles of revenge so often escalate’ Baumeister casts new light on these issues as he examines the gap between the victim’s viewpoint and that of the perpetrator, and also the roots of evil behavior, from egotism and revenge to idealism and sadism. A fascinating study of one of humankind’s oldest problems, Evil has profound implications for the way we conduct our lives and govern our society.


Beck, Aaron T. Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence, HarperCollins, 2000.

World-renowned psychiatrist Dr. Aaron T. Beck, widely hailed as the father of cognitive therapy, presents a revolutionary and eye-opening look at destructive behavior in Prisoners of Hate. He applied his established principles on the relationships between thinking processes and the emotional and behavioral expressions to the dark side of humanity. In fascinating detail, he demonstrates that basic components of destructive behavior-domestic abuse, bigotry, genocide, and war-share common patterns with everyday frustrations in our lives. A book that will radically alter our thinking on violence in all its forms, Prisoners of Hate, provides a solid framework for remedying these crucial problems.


Braithwaite, John, and Pettit, Phillip. Not Just Deserts: A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice, Clarendon, U.K. 1990.

Arguing for a radical shift in the research agenda of criminology, this monograph offers a comprehensive theory of criminal justice which draws on a philosophical view of the good and the right, and which points the way to practical intervention in the real world of incremental reform.  It includes chapters on the Comprehensive Theory, Consequentialist Theory, and Republican Theory of criminal justice and examines the inferiority of Retributivism in theory and practice. Ultimately, Braithwaite and Pettit give steps for implementing a new comprehensive Republican Theory of criminal justice.


Daly, Kathleen. Gender, Crime, and Punishment, Yale University, 1994.

In this book Kathleen Daly explores whether men and women who are convicted of similar crimes are punished differently. Analyzing cases of homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, larceny, and drug offenses, she challenges the common assumption that women are treated more leniently than men and shows that in fact gender disparities in sentencing are negligible and are not always advantageous to women.


Dobash, R.E. and Dobash, R.P.  Women, Violence, and Social Change, Routledge, 1992.

Women, Violence and Social Change is a unique comparative study of the British and American responses to the problem of violence against women.  The authors, well-known for their research on abused women, show how feminist activists created an international social movement, and describe the responses of the state, the justice system, therapeutic professions and academic research.  Their revealing analysis provides valuable insights into the process of achieving positive changes for women.


Douglas, John; Burgess, Ann; Burgess, Allen, and Ressler, Robert. Crime Classification Manual: A Standard System for Investigating and Classifying Violent Crimes, Wiley, 2013.

A thorough revision of the 1992 landmark book that standardized the language, terminology, and classifications used throughout the criminal justice system, Crime Classification Manual, Third Edition now adds new coverage of areas affected by globalization and new technologies, as well as new crime scene examples and analyses.


Finnis, J. Natural Law and Natural Rights, Oxford University, 2011.

Natural Law and Natural Rights is widely recognized as a seminal contribution to the philosophy of law, and an essential reference point for all students of the subject. This new edition, the first once since its original publication in 1980, includes a substantial postscript by the author responding to thirty years of comment, criticism, and further work in the field.


Frost, B. (Editor) The Socio-Economics of Crime and Justice, Sharpe, Canada, 1993.

This study of crime and justice is motivated primarily by the idea that individual behavior is influenced both by self-interest and by conscience, or by a sense of community responsibility. The first part considers pertinent philosophical, economic, and legal foundations of crime and justice. Chapters explore standard justifications for criminal sanctions, the economic model of crime and justice, and limits of criminal law. The second part examines processes that shape individual moral belief systems and contains chapters on the role of family in individual values; relationships among crime, ethnicity, and the community; and male-female crime rates and factors. The third part discusses specific issues related to offenders and their crimes. Chapters deal with juvenile crime, juvenile delinquency theories, community responses to crime, fear of crime, the effect of the community on domestic assault, and school crime in a multicultural environment. The final part focuses on the three primary components of the criminal justice system (police, prosecution, and courts).


Galaway, Burton, and Hudson, Joe (Editors). Criminal Justice, Restitution, and Reconciliation, Criminal Justice, 1990.

Eighteen papers discuss perspectives on restitution and victim-offender reconciliation, applications of restitution and reconciliation, and the evaluation of restitution and reconciliation programs. Three papers outline the conceptual basis for a theory of restorative justice. The concept proposed rejects traditional justifications, both retributive and utilitarian, for imposing State punishment and suggests instead that the purpose of State intervention in criminal matters should be to achieve peace among the participants and to restore losses. This theme is further developed in the four national reviews of program applications of the concept of restorative justice: Great Britain, West Germany, North America, and Canada. Another paper notes that crime victims are often abused by the criminal justice system, as it uses victims for its own retributive ends without responding to either victims or offenders based on victims’ interests and needs. A report on a survey of burglary victims in Minnesota indicates that crime victims give high priority to the opportunity to participate in case decision making and disposition. Other papers consider the value of mediation and restitution programs within the native cultures of residents of the Canadian North; the nature of interactions among social workers, victims, and offenders in a mediation program; factors relating to victims’ decisions to participate or not participate in victim-offender reconciliation programs; and the evaluation of restitution programs. The latter tend to show the short-term cost effectiveness of such programs compared to incarceration and traditional probation conditions


Gilligan, James. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and Its Causes, Putnam, 1996.

As he tells the stories of the men he treated at a hospital for the criminally insane, Dr. Gilligan traces the devastating links between violence and shame. He shows how that deadly emotion drives people to destroy others and even themselves rather than suffer a loss of self-respect.


Gilligan, James. Preventing Violence, Thames & Hudson, 2001.

In this book, Gilligan has concentrated on developing a new way of thinking about preventing violence, rather than simply providing recipes as to how to replicate on program or another tried somewhere already.  He sets out to discover and share some basic principles underlying the causes and prevention of violence, so that stakeholders will be in a better position to originate new ideas and approaches, and to evaluate those that have already been proposed or implemented by others, as well as those that will only exist in the future.


Kennedy, W.L. On the Borders of Crime: Conflict Management and Criminality, Longman, 1990.

An examination of the role of the community in the American criminal justice system. It incorporates many “non-judicial” routes in the resolution of disputes, including arbitration, negotiation and mediation. The roles of judges, prosecutors and defense lawyers are also investigated.


Kutash, I., Kutash, S., and Schlesinger, L. (Editors). Violence: Perspective on Murder and Aggression, Jossey-Bass, 1978.

This book offers practitioners in psychology, psychiatry, sociology, and other disciplines a comprehensive overview of the causes, treatment, and prevention of violence. Psychoanalytical, sociological, ethological, and biological theories about the origins of aggressive behavior are reviewed. The causes and consequences of different types of murder–intrafamily murder, murders by women, assassinations, etc.–are examined in light of research findings. Why people become violent and how that violence erupts into family assaults, vandalism in the schools, child abuse, sexual assaults, and other acts are explored. Disposition, treatment, and prevention are addressed in chapters on treatment versus correction and on treatment of sexual offenders, other violent offenders, violent police officers, and the victims of aggression. Society’s role in recognizing, controlling, and preventing violence is also considered. The 26 chapters contain case studies and clinical examples that professionals will find useful in dealing with child abuse, school violence, sexual offenses, and other problems. An index and a 63-page list of references are provided.


Maxwell, Gabrielle, and Morris, Allison. Families, Victims, and Culture: Youth Justice in New Zealand, Institute of Criminology, New Zealand, 1993.

The concept of restorative justice was in its infancy when New Zealand introduced Family Group Conferences as a way of responding to young people who offend. This novel approach is now recognized as the first practical example of a restorative justice process for decision-making in a Western criminal justice system. The research study reported here observed 200 family group conferences in 1990 and interviewed the families, victims, and young people who participated in them. The findings show that giving young people, families, and victims the opportunity to decide on how best to heal the harm and restore the lives of those involved can work in ways that was never possible in the traditional justice system.


McElrae, F. The Youth Court in New Zealand: A New Model of Justice, Legal Research Foundation, 1993.

This book  gives insight into one of the first country wide legislatively created Restorative Justice programs for youth, the New Zealand Youth Court program.   This book includes four articles:

    • A new model of justice /​ F.W.M. McElrea
    • Youth justice : legislation &​ practice /​ M.P. Doolan
    • What is to be done about criminal justice? /​ John Braithwaite
    • The Youth Co-ordinator’s role : a personal perspective of the new legislation in action /​Trish Stewart.


Miedzian, Myriam. Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence, Doubleday, 1991.

This well-researched, straightforward, realistic examination of the problem of male violence exposes the ways in which Americans encourage violence in their sons. Miedzian offers specific, practical suggestions as to what can be done to change this behavior. Originally published in 1991, the 2002 edition has a 50 page introduction updating information presented in the original.  The book’s analyses and recommendations are based on a synthesis of research, not on anecdotal material.


Pepinsky, H., and Quinney, R., (Editors). Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana Univ. 1990.

The essays in this volume propose peacemaking as an effective alternative to the war on crime. They range from studies of the intellectual roots of the peacemaking tradition to concrete examples of peacemaking in the community, with special attention to feminist peace making traditions and women’s experience.


Reidel, Marc, and Welsh, Wayne. Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention, Forth Edition. Oxford, 2015.

Criminal Violence: Patterns, Explanations, and Prevention, Fourth Edition, provides a current, comprehensive, and highly accessible overview of major topics, theories, and controversies within the field of criminal violence. Using engaging, straightforward language, Marc Riedel and Wayne Welsh consider diverse theoretical perspectives and present state-of-the-art prevention and intervention methods. In their discussions of various types of violence, the authors employ a consistent and coherent three-part framework that allows students to see the important relationships between research, theory, and application.  Includes the following topics:

Violence and criminal violence   ~  Tools    ~   Measures of violence    ~    Violence in other times and places
Types of criminal violence   ~   Homicides and assaults   ~   Robbery   ~   Rapes and sexual assaults
Hate crimes   ~   Violence in specific settings and contexts   ~   Family violence   ~ Workplace violence
School violence   ~   Gangs and gang violence   ~   The role of firearms in violence
The role of drugs and alcohol in violence   ~   Terrorism   ~   Prevention and punishment : a delicate balance


Silberman, Charles E. Criminal Violence, Criminal Justice, Random House, 1980.

The author explains why so much of what we think we know about crime and punishment is either wrong or irrelevant; he tells us what crime is, how people become criminals, and why some kinds of crime scare us.


Turow, Scott. Ultimate Punishment:  A Lawyer’s Reflections on Dealing with the Death Penalty, Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 2003.

In this vivid account of how his views on the death penalty have evolved, Turow describes his own experiences with capital punishment from his days as an impassioned young prosecutor to his recent service on the Illinois commission which investigated the administration of the death penalty and influenced Governor George Ryan’s unprecedented commutation of the sentences of 164 death row inmates on his last day in office.


Wilson, James Q., and Herrnstein, Richard J. Crime and Human Nature: The Definitive Study of the Causes of Crime, Simon and Schuster, 1986.

Two Harvard University professors (government and psychology) provide the most comprehensive study made to date (1986) of the causes of crime, and balances individual and social / environmental factors. Their controversial conclusion is that crime results from individual choice, which is itself influenced by a wide range of factors, including social / environmental.


Winters, Robert C., Globokar, Julie L., and Roberson, Cliff. An Introduction to Crime and Crime Causation, CRC Press, 2014.

An Introduction to Crime and Crime Causation is a student-friendly textbook that defines and explains the concepts of crime, criminal law, and criminology. Ideal for a one-semester course, the book compares and contrasts early criminal behavior and today’s modern forms of crime. It also explores society’s responses to criminal behavior in the past and in the present day. It covers both major and lesser-known crime causation theories and their impact on society.


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